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Books

    Ammann, K., Y. Jacot, and G. Kjellsson (editors). 2000. Methods for risk assessment of transgenic plants: Ecological risks and prospects of transgenic plants. Where do we go from here?. Vol 3. Birkhauser, Boston.

    Anderson, W.L., N.S. Bryson, R.C. Davis Jr., P. Katz, R.J. Mannix, S.P. Quarles, and R.E. Schwartz. 2001. Biotechnology deskbook. Environmental Law Institute, http://www.eli.org.

    Carey, F.A. 1987. Organic chemistry. McGraw Hill: USA. pp.1076-1077.

    Charles, D. 2001. Lords of the harvest: Biotech, big money, and the future of food. Perseus Books.

    Committee on Genetically Modifed Pest-Protected Plants. 2000. Genetically modified pest-protected plants: Science and regulation. Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

    Doerfler, W. 2000. Foreign DNA in mammalian systems. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany.

    Grace, E.S. 1997. Biotechnology unzipped. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.

    Galun, E., and A. Breiman. 1997. Transgenic plants (with an appendix on intellectual properties and commercialization of transgenic plants by John Barton). Imperial College Press, London.

    Henry, R.J. 1997. Practical applications of plant molecular biology. Chapman & Hall, London.

    Kjellsson, G., V. Simonsen, and K. Ammann (editors). 1997. Methods for risk assessment of transgenic plants. Pollination, gene-transfer, and population impacts. Vol. 2. Birkhauser, Boston.

    Klug, W.S., and M.R. Cummings. 1998. Essentials of Genetics, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

    Lal, R., and S. Lal. 1993. Genetic engineering of plants for crop improvement. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

    Lambrecht, B. 2001. Dinner at the new gene cafe: How genetic engineering is changing what we eat, how we live, and the global politics of food. St. Martin's Press.

    Lappe, M., B. Bailey, and M. Lappe. 1999. Against the grain: Biotechnology and the corporate takeover of your food. Common Courage Press.

    Letourneau, D.K., and B.E. Vurrows (ed.). 2001. Genetically engineered organisms: Assessing environmental and human health effects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

    Lewin, B. 1999. Genes VII. Oxford University Press, New York.

    Lurquin, P.F. 2001. The green phoenix: A history of genetically modified plants. Columbia University Press, New York.

    Marshall, E.L. 1999. High-tech harvest : A look at genetically engineered foods (Impact Books: Science). Franklin Watts Inc. Reading level: Young Adult.

    McHughen, A. 2000. Pandora's picnic basket: The potential and hazards of genetically modified foods. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

    Nelson, G.C. (ed.) 2001. Genetically modified organisms in agriculture: Economics and politics. Academic Press, New York.

    Nijs, H.C.M den, D. Bartsch, and J. Sweet (eds.) 2004. Introgression from Genetically Modified Plants into Wild Relatives. CABI Publishing, Wallingford,Oxfordshire, UK.

    Nottingham, S. 1998. Eat your genes: How genetically modified food is entering your diet. Zed Books Ltd., London

    Nuffield Council on Bioethics. 1999. Genetically modified crops: the ethical and social issues. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.

    Paredes-Lopez, O. (ed.). 1999. Molecular biotechnology for plant food production. Technomic Pub., Lancaster.

    Rissler, J., and M. Mellon. 1996. The ecological risks of engineered crops. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

    Traynor, P.L., D. Adair, and R. Irwin. 2001. A practical guide to containment: Greenhouse research with transgenic plants and microbes. Information Systems for Biotechnology, Blacksburg, VA.

    Vasil, I.K. (ed.). 1999. Molecular improvement of cereal crops. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

    Voet, D. 1995. Biochemistry, 2nd edition. J. Wiley & Sons, New York. ISBN#0471 58651

    Wong, D.W.S. 1997. The ABCs of gene cloning. Chapman & Hall. New York.


Articles

    Adam, David. 2003. Transgenic crop trial's gene flow turns weeds into wimps. Nature 421:462.

    Alper, J. 2003. Hatching the golden egg: A new way to make drugs. Science 300:729-730.

    Altieri, M.A. 2000. Biotechnology: A powerful distraction form solving world hunger. Diversity 15:24-26.

    Altieri, M.A., and P. Rosset. 1999. Ten reasons why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment and reduce poverty in the developing world. AgBioForum Vol. 2, No. 3 & 4. http://www.agbioforum.org/

    Anonymous, 2003. Minding the pharm: Are the Feds up to regulating pharmaceutical plants? AgBiotech Buzz Vol. 3, Issue 3, May 14, 2003. Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, http://pewagbiotech.org/buzz/archive.php3.

    Anonymous, 2002. On the pharm. AgBiotech Buzz Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 29, 2002. Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, http://pewagbiotech.org/buzz/archive.php3.

    APHIS, 2003a. USDA strengthens 2003 permit conditions for field testing genetically engineered plants. Press release. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/news/2003/03/gepermits_brs.html.

    APHIS, 2003b. USDA to require permits for all industrial biotech plants. Press release. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/news/2003/08/bioplants_brs.html.

    Arriola, P.E. and N.C. Elstrand. 1996. Crop-to-weed gene flow in the genus Sorghum (Poaceae): spontaneous interspecific hybridization between johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense, and crop sorghum, S. bicolor. American Journal of Botany 83(9):1153-1160.

    Babu, R.M., A. Sajeena, K. Seetharaman, and M.S. Reddy. 2003. Advances in genetically engineered (transgenic) plants in pest management - an overview. Crop Protection 22:1071-1086.

    Baranger, A., A.M. Chevre, F. Eber, and M. Renard. 1995. Effect of oilseed rape genotype on the spontaneous hybridization rate with a weedy species: an assessment of transgene dispersal. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 91:956-963.

    Barton, J.E., and M. Dracup. 2000. Genetically modified crops and the environment. Agronomy Journal 92:797-803.

    Benbrook, C. 2001. Do GM crops mean less pesticide use? Pesticide Outlook 12(5):204-207. http://www.biotech-info.net/benbrook_outlook.pdf

    Bevan, M.W., R.B. Flavell, and M.D. Chilton. 1983. A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable marker for plant cell transformation. Nature 304:184-187.

    Brimner, T., G.J. Gallivan, and G.R. Stephenson. 2005. Influence of herbicide-resistant canola on the environmental impact of weed management. Pest Management Science 61:47-52.

    Brown, K. 2001. Seeds of concern. Scientific American, pp. 52-57, April 2001.

    Buchanan, B. 2001. Genetic engineering and the allergy issue. Plant Physiology 126:5-7.

    Byrne, P. 2001. Rootworm-protected hybrid corn. From the Ground Up, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SoilCrop/extension/Newsletters/2001/
    guAutumn01.htm#rootworm protected corn

    Canadian Food Inspection Service. 2001. Plant molecular farming discussion document. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pbo/mf/mf_disde.shtml.

    Carpenter, J.E., and L.P. Gianessi. 2001. Agricultural Biotechnology: Updated benefit estimates. National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy. http://www.ncfap.org/pesticid1.htm

    Chambers, P.A., P.S. Duggan, J. Heritage, and J.M. Forbes. 2002. The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 49:161-164.

    Chilcutt, C.F., and B.E. Tabashnik. 2004. Contamination of refuges by Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes from transgenic maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(20):7526-7529.

    Christou, P. 2002. No credible scientific evidence is presented to support claims that transgenic DNA was introgresssed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Transgenic Research 11: iii-v.

    Collins, S. 2003. Potato the medical factory of tomorrow. The New Zealand Herald, April 4, 2003.

    Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 2004. Maize and Biodiversity: The Effects of Transgenic Maize in Mexico. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. http://www.cec.org/files/pdf//Maize-and-Biodiversity_en.pdf.

    Conner, A.J., T.R. Glare, and J-P Nap. 2003. The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment. The Plant Journal 33:19-46. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/plantgm/Conner.pdf

    Crawley, M.J., S.L. Brown, R.S. Hails, D.D. Kohn, and M. Rees. 2001. Transgenic crops in natural habitats. Nature 409:682-683.

    Crickmore, N., D.R. Zeigler, J. Fertelson, E. Schnepf, J. van Rie, D. Lereclus, J. Baum, and D.H. Dean. 1998. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 62:807-813.

    Dale, E.C., and D.W. Ow. 1991. Gene transfer with subsequent removal of the selection gene from the host genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 88(23):10558-10562.

    Dalton, R. 2001. Transgenic corn found growing in Mexico. Nature 413: 337.

    Daniell, H., B. Muthukumar, and S.B. Lee. 2001. Marker free transgenic plants: engineering the chloroplast genome without the use of antibiotic selection. Current Genetics 39:109-116.

    Desplanque, B., P. Boudry, K. Broomberg, P. Saumitou-Laprade, J. Cuguen, H. Van Dijk. 1999. Genetic diversity and gene flow between wild, cultivated and weedy forms of Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae), assessed by RFLP and microsatellite markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 98:1194-1201.

    Doebley, J. 1990. Molecular evidence for gene flow among Zea species. BioScience 40(6):443-448.

    Duggan, P. S., P.A. Chambers, J. Heritage, and J.M. Forbes. 2000. Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiology Letter 191:71-77.

    Duke, S.O., A.M. Rimando, P.F. Pace, K.N. Reddy, and R.J. Smeda. 2003. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:340-344.

    Dunfield, K.E., and J.J. Germida. 2001. Diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and root interior of field-grown genetically modified Brassica napus. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 38:1-9.

    Ebinuma, H., E. Matsunaga, K. Yamada, and M. Yamakado. 1997. Transformation of hybrid aspen for resistance to crown gall disease. In: Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

    Enserink, M. 1999. Industry response: Ag biotech moves to mollify its critics. Science 286:1666-1668.

    Ewen, S.W.B. and A. Pusztai. 1999. Effects of diets containing genetically modified potatoes containing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestines. Lancet 354:9187.

    Ezcurra, E., S. Ortiz, and J.M. Soberón. 2002. Evidence of gene flow from transgenic maize to local varieties in Mexico. P. 289-295. In: C.R. Roseland (ed.) LMOs and the Environment: Proceedings of an International Conference. Durham, NC. 27-30 Nov. 2001. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France.

    Feldmann, M., M. Morris, and D. Hoisington. 2000. Why so much controversy over genetically modified organisms? Answers to 10 frequently asked questions about GMOs. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/).
    See Spanish version below.

    Feldmann, M., M. Morris, and D. Hoisington. 2000. Por qué suscitan tanta polémica los organismos genéticamente modificados? Respuestas a 10 preguntas frecuentes acerca de los OGM. Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo. (http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/).

    Felsot, A. 2002. Pharm farming. Agrichemical and Environmental News, no. 195, July 2002, http://aenews.wsu.edu.

    Ferber, D. 2000. New corn plant draws fire from GM food opponents. Science 287:1390.

    Ferber, D. 1999a. Risks and benefits: GM crops in the cross hairs. Science 286:1662-1666

    Ferber, D. 1999b. Biotech critics watch the watchdogs. Science 286:1664.

    Ferre, J., and J. Van Rie. 2002. Biochemistry and genetics of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis. Annual Review of Entomology 47:501-533. http://www.checkbiotech.org/root/index.cfm?fuseaction=search& search=bacillus%20thuringiensis%20&doc_id=3026&start=1&fullsearch=0#

    Firbank, L.G., and F. Forcella. 2000. Genetically modified crops and farmland biodiversity. Science 289:1481-1482.

    Forsman, A., D. Ushameckis, A. Bindra, Z. Yun, and J. Blomberg. 2003. Uptake of amplifiable fragments of retrotransposon DNA from the human alimentary tract. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 270:362-368.

    Fox, J.L. 2003. Resistance to Bt toxin surprisingly absent from pests. Nature Biotechnology 21:958-959.

    Fraley, R.T., S.B. Rogers, and R.B. Horsch. 1983a. Use of a chimeric gene to confer antibiotic resistance to plant cells. Advances in Gene Technology: Molecular Genetics of Plants and Animals. Miami Winter Symposia Vol. 20:211-221.

    Fraley, R.T., S.G. Rogers, R.B. Horsch, P.R. Sanders, J.S. Flick, S.P. Adams, M.L. Bittner, L.A. Brand, C.L. Fink, J.S. Fry, G.R. Galluppi, S.B. Goldberg, N.L. Hoffmann, and S.C. Woo. 1983b. Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 80:4803-4807.

    Framond, A.J., M.W. Bevan, K.A. Barton, F. Flavell, and M.D. Chilton. 1983. Mini-Ti plasmid and a chimeric gene construct: new approaches to plant gene vector construction. Advances in Gene Technology: Molecular Genetics of Plants and Animals. Miami Winter Symposia Vol. 20:159-170.

    Freese, B. 2002. Manufacturing drugs and chemical crops: Biopharming poses new threats to consumers, farmers, food companies and the environment. Available from GE Food Alert, http://www.gefoodalert.org.

    Gahan, L.J., F. Gould, and D.G. Heckel. 2001. Science 293(5531): 857-860.

    Gaskell, G., M.W. Bauer, J. Durant, and N.C. Allum. 1999. Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the U.S. Science 285:384-387.

    Gebhard, F. and K. Smalla. 1998. Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 by transgenic sugar beet DNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64(4):1550-1554.

    Gepts, P. 2002. A comparison between crop domestication, classical plant breeding, and genetic engineering. Crop Science 42:1780-1790.

    Gould, F. 2003. Bt-resistance management-theory meets data. Nature Biotechnology 21:1450-1451.

    Gravel, P. 2001. Pollution par les OGM dans le fleuve Saint-Laurent. Le Devoir, December 18.

    Guerinot, M.L. 2000. Enhanced: the green revolution strikes gold. 2000. Science 287:241-243.

    Hall, L., K. Topinka, J. Huffman, and L. Davis. 2000. Pollen flow between herbicide-resistant Brassica napus is the cause of multiple-resistant B. napus volunteers. Weed Science 48:688-694.

    Hammond, B.G., J.L. Vicini, G.F. Hartnell, M.W. Naylor, C.D. Knight, E.H. Robinson, R.L. Fuchs, and S.R. Padgette. 1996. The feeding value of soybeans fed to rats, chickens, catfish and dairy cattle is not altered by genetic incorporation of glyphosate tolerance. Journal of Nutrition 126:717-727.

    Hansen-Jesse, L.C., and J.J. Obrycki. 2000. Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: lethal effects on the monarch butterfly. Oecologia 125:241-248.

    Hathaway, J. 2002. Biotech vaccine may one day protect against cruise ship illness. ASU News & Information, Dec. 10, 2002. Available from http://www.asu.edu/asunews/research/Vaccine-cruiseship_121002.html

    Hellmich, R.L., B.D. Siegfried, M.K. Sears, D.E. Stanley-Horn, M.J. Daniels, H.R. Mattila, T. Spencer, K.G. Bidne, and L.C. Lewis. 2001. Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis-purified proteins and pollen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:11925-11930.

    Herrera-Estrella, L., A. Depicker, M. van Montagu, and J. Schell. 1983. Expression of chimaeric genes transfered into plant cells using a Ti-plasmid-derived vector. Nature 303:209-213.

    Hoffmann, T., C. Golz, and O. Schieder. 1994. Foreign DNa sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus niger after co-culture with transgenic higher plants. Current Genetics 27:70-76.

    Hopkin, K. 2001. The risks on the table. Scientific American, pp. 60-61, April 2001.

    Iamtham, S., and A. Day. 2000. Removal of antibiotic resistance genes from transgenic tobacco plastids. Nature Biotechnology 18:1172-1176.

    James, C. 2002. Global status of commercialized transgenic crops: 2002. ISAAA Briefs No. 27. ASAAA: Ithaca, NY. http://www.isaaa.org/home.htm.

    James, C. 2001a. Global review of commercialized transgenic crops: 2001. ISAAA Briefs No. 24: Preview. ISAAA. Ithaca, NY. http://www.isaaa.org/

    James, C. 2001b. Global review of commercialized transgenic crops: 2000. ISAAA Briefs No. 23. ISAAA. Ithaca, NY. http://www.isaaa.org/

    James, C. 2000a. Global status of commercialized transgenic crops: 1999. ISAAA Briefs No. 17. ISAAA Ithaca, NY. http://www.isaaa.org/publications/briefs/Brief_17.htm

    James, C. 2000b. Global status of commercialized transgenic crops. ISAAA Briefs No. 21: Preview. ISAAA Ithaca, NY. http://www.isaaa.org/publications/briefs/Brief_21.htm

    James, C. 1997. Global status of transgenic crops in 1996. ISAAA Briefs No. 5. ISAAA. Ithaca, NY. http://www.isaaa.org/

    Joersbo, M., I. Donaldson, J. Kreiberg, S.G. Petersen, J. Brunstedt, and F.T. Okkels. 1998. Analysis of mannose selection used for transformation of sugar beet. Molecular Breeding 4:111-117.

    Johnson, C.S. 1999. Genetic enhancement of crops: The major way remaining to ensure global food security. Diversity 15:22-24.

    Jones, J.M., and R.S. Brooks. 1950. Effectiveness and distance of border rows in preventing outcrossing in corn. Oklahoma Agriculture Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. T-38.

    Jordan, M.C. 2000. The privatization of food: corporate control of biotechnology. Agronomy Journal 92:803-806.

    Kaeppler, H. 2000. Food safety assessment of genetically modified crops. Agronomy Journal 92:793-797.

    Kaiser, J. 2001. Words (and axes) fly over transgenic trees. Science 292:34-36. April 6.

    Kaiser, J. 2001b. Breeding a hardier weed. Science 293:1425-1426.

    Kaplinsky N., D. Braun, D. Lisch, A. Hay, S. Hake, and M. Freeling. 2002. Maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts. Nature 416: 601-602.

    Kato, M., K. Mizuno, A. Crozier, T. Fujimura, and H. Ashihara. 2000. Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves. Nature 406:956-957.

    Kaufman, M. 2002. Science journal says corn article was flawed. Washington Post, April 4, 2002.

    Klinger, T., P.E. Arriola, and N.C. Ellstrand. 1992. Crop-weed hybridization in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects of distance and population size. American Journal of Botany 79(12):1431-1435.

    Kohli, A., S. Griffiths, N. Palacios, R.M. Twyman, P. Vain, D.A. Laurie, and P. Christou. 1999. Molecular characterization of transforming plasmid rearrangements in transgenic rice reveals a recombination hotspot in the CaMV 35S promoter and confirms the predominance of microhomology mediated recombination. The Plant Journal 17(6):591-601.

    Lappé, M.A., E. Britt Bailey, C. Childress, and K.D.R. Setchell. 1999. Alterations in clinically important phytoestrogens in genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant soybeans. Journal of Medicinal Food 1(4):241-245.

    Levy, S.B. 1998. The challenge of antibiotic resistance. Scientific American 278(3):46-53.

    Libiakova, G., B. Jørgensen, G. Palmgren, P. Ulvskov, and E. Johansen. 2001. Efficacy of an intron-containing kanamycin resistance gene as a selectable marker in plant transformation. Plant Cell Reports 20:610-615.

    Liu, D., S. Burton, T. Glancy, Z.S. Li, R. Hampton, T. Meade, and D.J. Merlo. 2003. Insect resistance conferred by 283-kDa Photorhabdus luminescens protein TcdA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature Biotechnology 21:1222-1228.

    Losey, J.E., L.S. Rayor, and M.E. Carter. 1999. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature 399: 214.

    Louette, D. 1997. Seed exchange among farmers and gene flow among maize varieties in traditional agricultural systems. http://www.cimmyt.org/abc/geneflow/geneflow_pdf_engl/contents.htm

    Luna V., S., J. Figueroa M., B. Baltazar M., R. Gomez L., R. Townsend, And J.B. Schoper. 2001. Maize pollen longevity and distance isolation requirements for effective pollen control. Crop Science 41:1551-1557.

    Machuka, J. 2001. Agricultural biotechnology for Africa. African scientists and farmers must feed their own people. Plant Physiology 126:16-19.

    Mann, C.C. 2002a. Has GM corn 'invaded' Mexico? Science 295: 1617-1619.

    Mann, C.C. 2002b. Transgene data deemed unconvincing. Science 296: 236-237.

    Mascarenhas, R.N., D.J. Boethel, B.R. Leonard, M.L. Boyd, and C.G. Clemens. 1998. Resistance monitoring to Bacillus thuringiensis insecticides for soybean loopers (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) collected from soybean and transgenic Bt-cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 91:1044-1050.

    Masood, Ehsan. 1999. Compromise sought on 'Terminator' seed technology. Nature 399:721.

    McGloughlin, M. 1999. Ten reasons why biotechnology will be important to the developing world. AgBioForum Vol. 2, No. 3 & 4. http://www.agbioforum.org/

    McLaren, D.S., and M. Frigg. 2001. Sight and life manual on vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD). Task Force SIGHT AND LIFE. Basel, Switzerland. http://www.sightandlife.org Page 6.

    Mercer, K.K., K.P. Scott, W.A. Bruce-Johnson, L.A. Glover, and H.J. Flint. 1999. Fate of free DNA and transformation of the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii DL1 by plasmid DNA in human saliva. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65(1):6-10.

    Melo, V.M.M, J. Xavier-Filho, M.S. Lima, A. Prouvost-Dannon. 1994. Allergenicity and tolerance to proteins from Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) Food and Agricultural Immunology 6(2):185-195.

    Metz, M., and J. Futterer. 2001. Suspect evidence of transgenic contamination. Nature 416: 600-601.

    Moar, W.J. 2003. Breathing new life into insect-resistant plants. Nature Biotechnology 21:1152-1153.

    Moellenbeck, D.J., M.L. Peters, J.W. Bing, L.S. Higgins, L. Sims, et al. 2001. Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms. Nature Biotechnology 19:668-672.

    Moloney, M.M. 2000. Molecular farming using seeds as hosts. pp. 226-253. In M. Black and J.D.Bewley (eds.) Seed technology and its biological basis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

    Munkvold, G.P., and Hellmich, R.L. 1999. Genetically modified, insect resistant corn: Implications for disease management. APSnet Feature: (www.scisoc.org/feature/BtCorn/)

    Munkvold, G.P., Hellmich, R.L., and Rice, L.G. 1999. Comparison of fumonisin concentrations in kernels of transgenic Bt maize hybrids and non-transgenic hybrids. Plant Dis. 83:130-138.

    Munkvold, G.P., Hellmich, R.L., and Showers, W.B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize genetically engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87:1071-1077.

    Murai, N., D.W. Sutton, M.G. Murray, J.L. Slightom, D.J. Merlo, N.A. Reichert, C. Sengupta-Gopalan, C.A. Stock, R.F. Barker, J.D. Kemp, and T.C. Hall. 1983. Phaseolin gene from bean is expressed after transfer to sunflower via tumor-inducing plasmid vectors. Science 222:476-482.

    Nap, J-P., P.L.J. Metz, M. Escaler, and A.J. Conner. 2003. The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part I. Overview of current status and regulations. The Plant Journal 33:1-18. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/plantgm/Nap.pdf

    National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. 2003 and previous years. Crop Production - Acreage - Supplement. http://jan.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/field/pcp-bba/

    Netherwood, T., S.M. Martín-Orúe, A.G. O'Donnell, S. Gockling, J. Graham, J.C. Mathers, and H.J. Gilbert. 2004. Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract. Nature biotechnology 22(2):204-109.

    Nordlee, J.A. S.L. Taylor, J.A. Townsend, L.A. Thomas and R.K. Bush. 1996. Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans. New England Journal of Medicine 334:688-692.

    Oberhauser, K.S., M.D. Prysby, H.R. Mattila, D.E. Stanley-Horn, M.K. Sears, G. Dively, E. Olson, J.M. Pleasants, W.K.F. Lam, and R.L. Hellmich. 2001. Temporal and spatial overlap between monarch larvae and corn pollen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:11913-11918.

    Ohlrogge, J., and M.J. Chrispeels. 2003. Plants as chemical and pharmaceutical factories. pp. 500-527. In M.J. Chrispeels and D.E. Sadava (eds.) Plants, genes, and biotechnology. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

    Ortiz-García, S., E. Ezcurra, B. Schoel, F. Acevado, J. Soberón, and A.A. Snow. 2005. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(35):12338-12343.

    Osterblad, M., K. Norrdahl, E. Korpimaki, and P. Huovinen. 2001. Antibiotic resistance. How wild are wild mammals? Nature 409:37-38.

    Ostlie, K. 2001. Crafting crop resistance to corn rootworms. Nature Biotechnology 19:624-625.

    Padgette, S.R., N.B. Taylor, D.L. Nida, M.R. Bailey, J. MacDonald, L.R. Holden, and R.L. Fuchs. 1996. The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans. Journal of Nutrition 126:702-716.

    Palka-Santini, M., B. Schwarz-Herzke, M. Hösel, D. Renz, S. Auerochs, H. Brondke, and W. Doerfler. 2003. The gastrointestinal tract as the portal of entry for foreign macromolecules: fate of DNA and proteins. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 270:201-215.

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